The solid fact remains, the ‘Stars and stripes’ flies
over one part while the other part has the ‘sickle and
hammer’ as its banner—but the other, and more important
fact ought not to be minimised, and that is this: Germany
has become strong and grows stronger. Of course the
Western part swears by democracy while the Eastern part
qualifies its democracy by the addition of the words
‘people’ and ‘plebescite’, but both the wings of Germany
have become strong. The U.S.A. guides the destiny of
Western Germany, while Soviet Russia has taken upon
itself the task of shaping Eastern Germany. But the
remarkable fact is, both these ‘zones’, though they
put on the appearance of opposing military camps, have
by now become economically strong and sound. That is
a fact, at once spectacular and significant. It may
even be cited as a classic example of the vanquished
enslaving the victors. Both the U.S.A. and the Soviet
Union vie with one another in helping Germany to become
strong and stronger. They have to prove to the world
that their respective system is perfect, that it alone
could deliver the goods. Hence the Soviet Union spares
no effort in rebuilding East Germany, and Uncle Sam
becomes vigorous in his generosity in inculcating a
new life into Western Germany.
Even the habitual dreamer would not have thought that
a time would come when the Dollar and the Rouble, would
be poured forth in abundance, to make the Mark gain
strength and soundness. And yet it has happened, the
Mark has become strong, Germany is today a country treading
the path of prosperity and plenty.
“The economic recovery of Western Germany since 1948
has been spectacular. At the end of the last great war,
Germany was a defeated and broken country with her economy
disrupted by the ravages of the war, division of what
was formerly a single economic unit, and an influx of
10 to 12 million refugees into a geographically restricted
area. Her proud industrial edifice was damaged beyond
“But in less than ten years the economy of Western Germany
has grown to be one of the soundest in Europe.... The
standard of living attained the pre-war level and even
higher; unemployment was reduced to a tolerable degree;
balance of payments surpluses and international reserves
grew very fast, her gold and foreign exchange reserves
—writes Prof. S.K.Basu, head of the department of the
The picture of Eastern Germany seems to compete with
the portrait presented by Prof. Basu, in point of richness
“During our study tour we were highly impressed by the
progress made by this young Republic during its nine
years of existence. When one thinks that at the end
of the Second World War, the big cities of Germany like
Berlin and Dresden completely lay in ashes with their
industry ruined, one will the more so admire the tremendous
effort put up by the people of this Republic to rebuild
their residences, industries and their economy. In spite
of the division of their homeland the citizens of the
German Democratic Republic, by their efforts, have not
only built beautiful houses and shops, but also placed
their economy on a sound footing. It is by dint of sheer
hard work that their homeland is once again prospering.
The young Republic stands firm on its feet and I am
convinced that this country will once again take its
place in the community of the nations of the world and
throw its weight for the peace and happiness of the
world.” —writes Mr.Krishna Tripathi of the Banares University,
now studying at a Technical College at Dresden, East
The conclusions that each one of them would have arrived
at, might be different.
One would perhaps put forward a strong plea for the
Soviet system and the other might perhaps point out
that the American system is most effective in making
a country sound and prosperous.
But we are concerned, with an entirely different lesson,
that could be drawn from both the of these pictures
and that is this: there has been a tremendous recovery
and resurrection and from out of the smoky sepulchre
that was Germany has arisen, a new, virile, let us pray
that it should not become vindictive Germany, and this
is to be found in both the wings—under both systems.
So the plain truth, to be recognised is, that though
the help rendered by U.S.A. and Soviet Union, to a very
great extent contributed for such remarkable recovery,
the basic cause seems to be the character of the German
people, their will, their drive and their determination.
Mr.Wallich has observed that the German character, its
strength and resiliency, its ability to get things done
has been the mainspring of the recovery. They call this
particular trait, as ‘Tuchtigkeit”. Those who are almost
amazed at the spectacle of a broken nation becoming
strong within ten years, ask, what factors have been
responsible for working such a miracle; and after analysing
the situation, they come to this irresistible conclusion,
that the mainspring of recovery is this, Tuchtigkeit.
Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru, has been busy all these years,
attempting to get this mainspring! Yet it is still eluding
his grasp. The deeper his ardor in this attempt, the
more distant seems to be the goal. He harangues, cajoles,
sermonises, scolds, expresses sorrow,—but touch what
chord he might, this Tuchtigkeit still remains elusive.
Pandit Nehru, takes the people along with him to those
modern shrines, the dams and projects, in the hope of
inculcating this spirit of drive and determination in
their minds—but the people remain unresponsive and like
the proverbial love-sick hero. Pandit Nehru pours forth
his anguish at times, and even talks of retirement!
We hasten to say, that we write this, not to deride
this great man, not to belittle his effort, nor to doubt
the honesty of purpose in his actions, but only to point
out that, this failure to get the mainspring should
make Pandit Nehru, to bestow some deep thought about
the efficacy or otherwise of the methods he has been
following till now.
He should find an answer to this question—of course
it is a tormenting one—why is it, that in spite of his
sermons and appeals presented in poetic garb and even
prophetic style, the people have not come forward to
become partners in this pilgrimage? Why was he not able
to get the best in them, and gear it to the machinery
for recovery? Why is it that the masses look on passively
and even doubtingly at these new projects and programmes?
Blue prints and brochures are for the chambers; for
the hut and the hovel something more real and intimate
is needed, if the people are to evince keen interest
in all these activities that go by the name of reconstruction.
They should ‘feel’ that all these activities are for
them, for giving them better, newer and fuller life.
And this could not be achieved by sleepy discourses
at costly seminars, not certainly through addresses
studded with statistics. They should hear the melody,
however feeble it might be! They should be made to see
the approaching dawn! They should feel that things are
taking better shapes and turns. They should be made
to get implicit faith in the mission, not through preaching
but by precepts. When they find their rulers sweating
for them, then would they be thankful, and become willing
and enthusiastic partners in the great task of resurrection.
But the sight they are asked to witness, is appalling.
They find the old old ways, followed by the new rulers,
with an added amount of arrogance. They find red tape
becoming redder, and the distance between the rulers
and the ruled widening. They find plutocrats don on
the patriot’s attire and boss over the people. And how
could they be enthused? They find all around them strange
happenings! They find no intimate contact with the measures
undertaken by the government. Hence there is lack of
warmth, and from such a people, Pandit Nehru could never
get this, Tuchtigkeit.
Instead of spotting out this cause, Pandit Nehru begins
brandishing hot epithets, when others dare to point
out certain failures and shortcomings.
No nation rises to its full stature, no people arise
to put forth their best efforts, unless they are convinced
and captivated by an ideal placed before them. And what
is the ideal Pandit Nehru is able to place before the
A curious mixture of different systems, hastily assorted,
loosly packed but lavishly labelled! That cannot awaken
the energies in the masses.
Placing an ideal alone is not enough; the rulers should
at every step and turn prove to the people, that they
are true to the ideal presented, that they are following
a sure path, and that the goal is not receding. Nothing
should be said or done, that would make the people doubt
the honesty of purpose behind the attempts.
We are not interested in presenting platitudes. We but
write thus, because, the people have got quite the contrary
feelings about most of the governmental activities and
hence they do not offer their active support to schemes,
presented by the planners.
Bluntness is sometimes permissible and this is a problem
wherein, one should be quite frank. Despite denials
and protests from those who are placed on the pedestal,
the people feel that the Congress regime has become
the barmaid to big business. The people think that all
schemes are so manipulated that the Big Business would
get the most out of them.
On seeing dams, real or models, the people are nor thinking
about the irrigation facilities generated, but only
about the contractors who have become fat because of
these works! When the Congress propagandist, loyally
enough, preaches about seed farms, the people are instantly
reminded of ‘so and so’ who, because of his intimacy
with Congress bosses, sold out unfertile lands for abnormal
prices. When ministers exhibit their ability by quoting
figures proving that production in the agricultural
sector has increased, the people look askance, because
they find the cost of living becoming heavier day by
day. When the up-country leaders talk about Unity, the
people wink at one another for, they are instantly reminded
of the tussle going on between one linguistic group
and another. No announcement enthuses them. No achievement
seems to satisfy them, for, they have not felt these
things. It is one thing to be ‘told’ and an entirely
different thing to feel about it. And what is termed
Tuchtigkeit can spring forth only when the great mass
of the people ‘feel’. That is woefully lacking here.
“Who says that the Congress has become the barmaid to
Big Business? And how dare one utter such words?” thunders
forth the Congress propagandist. And the theorist amongst
them even asks. ‘Pray what do you mean by Big Business?’
Of course the people see all around them, the spectacle
of the rich becoming richer, and hence conclude that
the regime is after all aiding and abetting Big Business.
But they cannot present any analytical reasoning to
prove, what they see. That is why the Congress propagandist
puts the tickling question, ‘prove your accusation?’
Fortunately for the masses, an expert and recognised
authority comes forward to present the reply, with devastating
“Big Business means the 650 to 800 men who control between
them all the large concerns in the Country”—writes,
Mr.Gorwalla, in the Eastern Economist.
It is this phalanx that has taken hold of the Congress
“The close affiliation the Congress party has always
had with Big Business has become even closer since its
accession to power. Big Business fills the party chests.
Ministers becoming friends with and adopting the outlook
of Big Business get further and further away from the
people. The influence of Big Business is obvious in
matters like food and housing policy, leniency shown
to large tax evaders and in fact directly or indirectly
in almost every sphere of governmental, economic activity.”
How are the Congress bosses, going to defend themselves?
Mr.Gorwalla is emphatic and logical.
A critic attempted to pen a defence, and he asked Mr.Gorwalla
to substantiate his statement.
“Here is the testimony of the Finance Minister of the
government of India, given in a debate in Parliament
in March 1957”
—writes Mr.Gorwala and refers to the statement of the
Finance Minister, in which he confesses having given
a licence to an individual knowing full well that he
is a black-marketeer.
“I know that the man to whom I gave the licence was
going to do black-marketing. I knew taxes were not being
paid; I knew huge profits were being made because we
gave quantitative protection of a black-market nature.
I knew we were bleeding the consumer white,... I and
my government did it in the interests of the country”
This is what the Finance Minister said:-
On analysis anybody could find the unpardonable crimes
A licence is given to a black-marketeer.
The Minister grants the licence knowing full well that
he is a black-marketeer.
The Minister knows that the licencee makes huge profits,
and evades taxes.
The Minister admits that he is bleeding the consumer
This is the state of affairs, and how could the people
show any respect for the very many schemes adumbrated
by a regime, which abets black-marketing.
We did it all in the best interest of the country, pleads
the Finance Minister, and no one with an iota of justice
and fairplay would munch such a shabby explanation.
Mr.Gorwalla compares such a regime to a night-watchman,
turning a help-mate to the burglar; the bosses in the
Congress camp would be furious, but how could they escape
such a comparison! Their Finance Minister admits having
granted a licence to a black-marketeer.
Instances such as this are many and grow in a menacing
manner. Nepotism and corruption are to be found in all
spheres. The various audit reports bear ample testimony
to this sorry state of affairs. And yet, the Supremo,
takes no care to curb this evil. In fact he considers
this to be such a small affair as not to merit his attention.
When the people find the regime so sordid, they naturally
become disgusted, and keep aloof from the activities
chalked out by such a regime.
Hence it is, that the nature and amount of drive and
determination shown by the German people, is not to
be found here, and consequently all those grandiose
schemes for the reconstruction of the country bear no
fruit, and the country finds itself burdened heavily
with increased taxes and loans.
The greatest asset, that any government could and should
attempt to get, is the willing, enthusiastic and spontaneous
co-operation of the masses, but the acts of commission
and omission of the present regime are of such dimension,
that it has almost forfeited its right to demand the
(Editorial - 25-01-1959)