Nadu was once named after it’s capital city, Madras. The
situation was a complicated one. Even Congressmen spoke
of Tamil Nadu within the State, reserving ‘Madras State’
for letters and speeches meant for external consumption.
To appease the Tamil People, they even changed the name
of the Aranmore Palace in Ooty to ‘Tamizhagam’. But they
were not willing to set right this anomaly by making a
was Thiru Bhupesh Gupta, of the Communist Party who took
the initiative in 1961 by introducing a private Members’
Bill to amend the First Schedule, entry number 7 of the
Constitution. The purpose of the Bill was to call the
Madras State by its rightful name ‘Tamil Nadu’ in conformity
with the historical, linguistic and cultural considerations.
Anna’s impassioned defence of this Bill will long be remembered
for its sincere emotion and clear-cut reasoning.
adamant Centre refused to yield and opposed the private
Member’s Motion to call ‘Madras State’ by its rightful
name ‘Tamil Nadu’. With its majority, the Congress Party
defeated the Bill; but the change could not be resisted
for long. Four years later in 1967, when the DMK was elected
to power in Madras State, Anna as Chief Minister of Tamil
Nadu achieved his objective with the unanimous backing
of both the Houses of the State Legislature. Today, there
is no Madras State, only ‘Tamil Nadu’.
Vice Chairman, I am rarely in full agreement with my Hon.
Friend, Mr Bhupesh Gupta, but today I rise to support
him whole-heartedly, fully and sincerely. The only weakness
of the Bill is that it is a non-official one. I would
have liked an official Bill to have been brought forward
for this very necessary and very simple thing that would
have satisified millions of Tamilians in Tamil Nadu. Many
arguments that were advanced against the Bill brought
forward are perhaps more due to the colour of the mover
rather than the arguments advanced for its support. One
Hon. Member was saying that he was not moving a bill which
the Madras State has asked him to move. I regret very
much that sometimes it becomes necessary to explain some
rudimentary principles. The Madras Government will never
ask a non-official bill to be brought forward, there are
the State representatives in this assembly and they would
have brought it forward; and therefore, to say that the
Bill cannot be supported just because the Madras Government
has not asked Mr Gupta to bring this Bill, shows that
their only argument to fight against the Bill is that
their party or their State Government has not instructed
them to act in this way. I can well understand the political
tremor in their hearts, but that is no argument against
the Bill. The arguments advanced by the sponsors of the
Bill for renaming Madras Tamil Nadu have not been answered
by any one of the speakers who spoke about it.
Bhadra Yajee : I have answered it.
cannot understand – I very rarely understand – your language
and, therefore, I do not know whether there is logic or
not but I would say that some of the arguments advanced
were not proper. One Hon. Member was saying that there
are Telugu – knowing people in Tamilnad, Malayalam and
Kanarese-speaking people and, therefore, to name Madras
Tamilnad will create a sort of tremor in their hearts.
May I inform this House through you, Sir, that all these
arguments were advanced and shattered in my part of the
country? All these arguments did not stand the on-slaught
of reason and logic. For the sake of informing this House,
I may inform you, sir, that on the 24th February, 1961
the Leader of the House in the State Assembly stood up
to say that he was accepting part of the non-official
resolution brought forward not by the DMK or any other
political party which is considered to be inimical to
the Congress, but by a PSP Member. That PSP Member brought
forward a non-official resolution for renaming Madras
as Tamil Nad and it was discussed for many days and finally
the then Finance Minister and Leader of the House, Mr
C Subramaniam, stood up to say that he was accepting a
part, or the spirit, of the resolution and added that
therefore all publications of the Madras Government would
appear in the name of the Tamil Nad Government. It is
in such a way that all the publications in Tamil in the
Tamil nad Government are being printed and published.
As a matter of fact, after making that historic declaration
on the floor of the Madras Assembly on 24th February,
the very next day the Finance Minister had to present
his Budget and in presenting the Budget, the opening words
of the Finance Minister were, “In consequence with the
declaration made yesterday, I am now presenting to you
the Budget of Tamil Nad.” Therefore, all the arguments
that the Telugu-speaking people, the Malayalam-speaking
people, and the Kanarese-speaking people have will be
up against this change in name, fall to the ground because
part of this has been accepted by the Government. The
part relating to the amendment of the Constitution : the
word ‘Madras’ to be deleted and the word “Tamil Nad” to
be inserted : was not accepted. Therefore, the sentimental
arguments advanced cannot be accommodated even by the
Government much less by the Madras Congress leaders. Sir,
I am really surprised to see how ill-informed my hon.
Friends are, those who advanced arguments against the
Bill. One Hon. Member stated here that Kollegal is in
Tamil Nad. That Hon. Member, unfortunately, is not present
in the House at present. I may tell him, and his friends
may tell him, that Kollegal today is part of Mysore. It
has been taken away from the composite State of Madras
and, after the formation of linguistic States, has gone
to Mysore. If my Hon. Friend is so ill-informed about
Kollegal, I am not surprised at his arguments that nowhere
in Tamil literature does the word Tamil Nad occur. A politician
who cannot understand that Kollegal today does not form
part of Tamil Nad cannot be expected to be conversant
with Tamil literature. For the edification of the House
and for his own edification, I will point out the names
of certain books wherein the word “Tamil Nad” is to be
found. These are books written 1,800 or 2,000 years ago.
I am reading the name in Tamil but the Hon. Member who
made that allegation is a Tamilian Congress man and he
can understand and the Hon. Deputy Minister who will perhaps
be making the reply. She being also a Tamilian, may tell
him. The names of Paripadal, Pathirtrupathu and the more
popular names of Silappathikaram and Manimekalai. These
are all Tamil classic written more than a thousand years
ago and in Paripadal it is stated “Thandamizh veli Thamizh
Nattu akamellam” which means “Tamil Nad which is surrounded
by sweet Tamil on all the three sides”. In Pathitrupathu,
a classic written about 1,800 years ago it is stated ‘Imizh
kadal veli Thamizhagama’ meaning “Tamil Nad which has
got the sea as its boundary.” In Sillappathikaram it is
stated “Then Tamizh nannadu” meaning “good Tamil Nad”
and in Manimekalai it is stated “Sambuth theevinul Tamizhaga
marungil” : Tamil Nad which is called “Sambuththeevu”.
If my Hon. Friends would like to have more popular illustrations,
I would like to refer them to the poems of the poet Kamban
and Sekkilar both of whom have definitely used the word
Tamil Nad. It was only afterwards that there were three
kingdom, the Cheranadu, the Cholanadu and the Pandyanadu.
Tamil Nad is to be found in the classics of Tamil. It
is not that there is poverty of ideas in the classics.
It only shows that my Hon. Friend does not spend much
thought or time over the Tamil classics. I may point out
for the edification of the House, that when the Congress
Government in Tamil Nad purchased the Jaipur palace at
Ooty known as Aranmore Palace, they immediately renamed
that palace, Tamizhagam.” I am pointing this out to say
that the Congress, there is trying to assuage our feelings,
is trying to carry the Tamil Nad people along with them
by saying that they have renamed the Aranmore palace Tamizhagam,
that they are publishing all the Tamil manifestos as Tamil
Nadu Government publications; that only for international
correspondence, they want the name ‘Madras’. They are
not prepared to amend the Constitution. If the arguments,
advanced by some of the Tamil Nad Congress people were
to be read by the Chief Minister of Madras, he would turn
round and say “you too, Brutus.” All the arguments advanced
for not renaming it fall flat on the ground because even
the Congress Government there does not approve of these
peculiar issue was raised here that the Bill is brought
forward only as a publicity stunt of the Communist Party.
Why don’t we appreciate the Communist Party for its sense
of political expediency? Are not all political parties
interested in getting political publicity? Are not all
political parties interested in getting political publicity?
Is publicity a heinous crime? Why do you publish reports
and books on the Five-Year Plans? Is that not publicity,
done at public cost? Yet you accuse other political parties,
saying that this is publicity. But let me tell this House
through you, that even though you defeat the Bill, he
has gained that publicity. You are not going to rob him
any more of that publicity. When he comes to Tamil Nad
he can conveniently face the Tamilians and say, “I pleaded
for you but it was the ruling Party that let you down”.
Therefore you have unawares walked into Mr Gupta’s snare.
I would have appreciated it if the ruling party had approached
Mr Bhupesh Gupta, and stated, “Do not bring in this non-official
Bill; we ourselves are interested in it. We will bring
Mr. Santhanam pointed out that we had un uphill task in
retaining Madras; we had to fight with so many people
and we retained Madras. I can claim some amount of credit
in that fight and when I was in the thick of the fight,
I did not find Mr Santhanam by my side.
Ali Khan : At the cost of Andhra.
the consent of the Andhras. I can say that. That is because
the present Government there is providing even today,
in the border areas, measures for safeguarding Telugu
culture and for imparting the Telugu language. Therefore
though Madras has been taken by Tamilians, we have no
enmity with the Andhras. But my friend Mr. Santhanam was
saying that it was such an uphill task, retaining Madras,
that we would like to keep Madras. This is not a question
of keeping Madras or giving it up ; this is the question
of keeping Madras in Tamil Nad and renaming the state
as Tamil Nad. Madras after all, is the capital city of
Tamil Nad, just as Ahmedabad happens to be the capital
city of Gujarat, as Chandigarh happens to be the Capital
city of Punjab. If this logic of naming the State after
the name of the capital city, is to be followed, Kerala
should be renamed Trivandrum, Andhra is to be renamed
Hyderabad, Punjab is to be renamed Chandigarh and Gujarat
should be renamed Ahmedabad.
Gupta : And Bengal should be renamed Calcutta.
My Government, my Congress Government in Madras, is interested
in bilingualism. That is because its head Government is
interested in having two names for everything; India that
is Bharat, Jan Gana mana and Vande Matharam. They always
want to keep two blocks. Take something from here and
take something from there. So the Madras Government is
having Tamil Nad for the consumption of the Tamilians
and Madras for all India consumption.
is a very awkward word ‘duplicity’. And that is why my
friend, Mr Bhupesh Gupta was saying that some of the Congress
people talk in one way there, and talk in another way
here. No Congress member can face a Tamilian audience
and say that the name ‘Madras’ should be retained. I challenge
Pattabiraman (Madras) : We have faced it during the agitation
of the Tamil Arasu Khazagam and my friend knows it. What
he is saying is a complete travesty of facts.
know how Mr. Pattabiraman faces agitation; I won’t say
it. Let us not face each other as Congress and DMK. Let
us face the Tamilian public on this single sanctified
issue of renaming the State and if you carry along with
you 51 per cent of the people, I am prepared to bow my
head before you. This is not a party issue at all. The
renaming of Madras as Tamil Nad has been accepted by the
Communist Party, by the DMK, by the PSP and you will be
surprised, by the Madras Branch of the Swatantra Party
too. Therefore all parties are one on this issue of renaming
Madras as Tamil Nadu.
Pattabiraman : None of them put it in their election manifesto.
would present a copy of the DMK election manifesto to
him tomorrow. I am sure Mr Pattabiraman knows Tamil. This
has been an issue in the Tamil Nad for than 10 to 15 years.
He was saying that only the Tamil Arasu Khazagam was fighting
for it. It is true partially because it was only the Tamil
Arasu Khazagam that started an agitation for it, but all
other political parties were immensely, intimately interested
in this issue. They have printed it in their manifestos,
in their political speeches and no district conference
of the DMK took place without passing this Resolution
for renaming Madras as Tamil Nad. Therefore it is not
simply on the spur of the moment that I am pleading for
it. My sorrow is that my friend Mr Bhupesh Gupta, has
stolen the thunder from me by sponsoring this Bill. But
for that, I would like to present before this House that
this has been the issue all along in Tamil Nad. And they
have not answered Mr Bhupesh Gupta : What do you lose
by renaming Madras Tamil Nad? Nobody has answered that.
Lingam (Madras) : Anyway what do you gain by renaming
it as Tamil Nad?
do I gain? What have you gained by renaming Parliament
Lok Sabha? What have you gained by renaming the Council
of States Rajya Sabha? What have you gained by renaming
the President Rashtrapati?
I say, “What do you lose?”. That is important, because
if you were to lose something precious, we would not press
for it. It you do not lose something fundamental, we will
press for it. That other point that was raised was, what
do you gain? We gain satisfication sentimentally ; we
gain the satisfaction that an ancient name is inculcated
in the hearts of millions and scores of millions of people.
Is that not enough compensation for the small trouble
of changing the name? Therefore all the arguments that
have been advanced have been shattered.
have advanced an apologetic argument saying that if the
State Government had come forward with this, we would
have accepted it.
they are perfectly aware of the composition of the State
Legislature where the Congress Party is in a majority.
Would you ask the Congress Member in the Madras State
Legislature to vote for such a Bill if it were to come
there, without the Party whip? No.
Pattabiraman : Your party members could have brought forward
a resolution in the House and changed the name. Why have
you not done it for the past seven or eight years?
am coming to that. When we present such a Bill to the
Madras Legislature, they say that if you want to rename,
an amendment of the Constitution is necessary and an amendment
of the Constitution is possible only when you go to Parliament.
Pattabiraman : I am saying a resolution, not a Bill. A
resolution can be made.
may say for the information of the Hon. Member that we
pressed this point during the discussion on a non-official
Bill of the PSP. In fact we even staged a walk-out. The
DMK and the Communist Party joined together in the walk-out.
That is our numerical position there.
the non-official resolution was discussed in the Madras
Assembly, we pressed for the constitutional amendment,
and the only explanation offered to us was that it is
possible only at the level of Parliament. And when we
come to Parliament, we are asked to go back to the State
Legislature. We are asked to go to Parliament because
you are entrenched in both places, not because your logic
is sound, not because your justice is sound, but simply
because you are entrenched in both places.
Rajagopalan (Madras) : We are entrenched because the people
vote for us. It has been discussed even during the elections.
There had been fasts by certain members and one person
even lost his life after fasting. Even after that, we
won the election. That shows that the people still want
it as it is – not for the satisfaction of some politicians
who want a slogan.
Deputy Chairman, I am very glad that the discussion is
becoming very interesting. Bit, I am say, for the information
of the House that the DMK has got nothing to do with fasting.
The fasting was undertaken by anon- party man, in fact
a relative of the Chief Minister of Madras, Mr Sankaralinga
to say that in spite of the fasting you have not changed
shows how human you are. Therefore, the question was discussed
there. We were asked to go to Parliament. When we come
to Parliament, we are again sent back to the Legislaturre.
In both places, the answer is as my Hon. Friend has stated,
“The people have voted for us.” Well, that is a fact,
a tragic fact, a black fact which ought to be seen.
RAJAGOPALAN ; In spite of you, the tragedy is still there.
T.S.PATTABIRAMAN: He says that the tragedy will be permanent.
The tragedy of the Congress’ getting a majority at every
election will be a permanent feature and we are prepared
to accommodate you.
Deputy Chairman, my friend was saying that this tragedy
is going to be permanent. Woe to the country and to the
people. That is all what I can say. But I would like to
press this point that a constitution amendment can be
thought of and made only through Parliament. That is why
we have approached Parliament. If any amendment is brought
forward on this, or any suggestion is given that it should
be circulated to gather public opinion, we take up that
I do not ask you to take this as an election issue. Do
not afraid of that.
are not making it an election issue. This is an issue
to be taken to the people for getting their consent or
otherwise. That is not going to affect your offices. Nobody
thinks about that. You may remain there.
is not a question of an analysis of our different parties.
This is a question wherein a particular issue has to be
referred to the public. Are you prepared for that ? That
is what we ask. You are nor prepared for that and that
is why I say -
my State ‘Tamil Nadu’
N. M. ANWAR (Madras) : Madam, on a point of information.
I have got the highest respect and regard for my good
friend, Mr. Annadurai. But will he kindly explain what
there is in retaining this name ‘Madras’ which has got
such worldwide publicity? How is he going to meet that
point of view? Where is the difficulty in restaining this
world – wide name of Madras ?
The only point in answer to the Hon. Member, Mr Anwar,
is this. What we gain is, we gain sentimental satisfaction
and status for our ancient land. If in Madras we change
the name of China Bazaar into Netaji Subhas Chandra Road,
nothing is changed in the street but something is changed
n our thinking, in our soul, in our fibre. That is why
we pressing forr it, not because we think that keeping
Madras there will be wrong.
M. ANWAR : My question is not that. We agree that there
is something good in calling it Tamil Nad. But what is
your allergy to Madras which has got a world – wide publicity
allergy is, if Madras is used as the name of the State,
you confuse the capital with the State. Madras is the
name of the capital city, Tamil Nadu is the name that
ought to be given to the State. There ought to be a distinction
between the name of the State and its capital, and therefore
I wholeheartedly support the Bill brought forward and
I would commend it to the House.